Published On: Tue, Apr 3rd, 2012

Ottoman Occupation on Somaliland Started At 1546

Colonial Period of Ottoman Occupation on Somaliland about 466 years ago. Somaliland records of its own history and heritage is extremely poor and grounded in unproven verbal claims. But those discoveries could simply rewrite the history that was not part Somalia except the period of during the East African Campaign of WWII, the protectorate was occupied by Italy in August 1940, and recaptured by the British in summer 1941. Some Italian guerrilla fighting (Amedeo Guillet) lasted until 1942. The conquest of British Somaliland was Italy’s only victory (without the cooperation of German troops) in WWII against the Allies… Of course the presentation of the past to the World is a big responsibility and a duty CHECK HER AT.

Then, from 1960 to 1991 is an only interaction between Somaliland and Somalia civilizations and restoring the history of a civilization is liberation from tailored colonial dates. In 1548 CE, the port city of Zeila was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. The reason for this was that Zeila is situated in a strategic location on the Red Sea because it is near the Bab el Mandeb strait; a key area for trade with the East.

For 300 years, Zeila enjoyed trade with other countries and was home to Arab, Persian and even Indian merchants. On 1884, when the empire was on the brink of collapse; Egypt, an Ottoman vassal at that time, occupied western parts of Somaliland, the other regions being controlled by Somalilander clans. Then, During the Scramble for Africa era, the region now claimed by Somaliland was the British Somaliland Protectorate.

Ancient Somaliland
In the Classical era, the city states of Malao (Berbera) prospered, and were deeply involved in the spice trade, selling myrrh and frankincense to The Romans and Egyptians Somaliland and became known as hubs for spices mainly cinnamon and the cities grew wealthy from it the Perilous of the Eritrean sea tells the story that the northern Somaliland and regions of modern-day Somalia were independent and competed with Aksum for trade.

Recent Modern History
Majority Somalilanders only virtualized the existence of economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.

But what is the significance of other discoveries?
The awareness of prehistoric sites in Somaliland is strongly high its significance is undervalued. There are mainly Neolithic rock paintings in the plateau of regions of East Somaliland mixtures dates between Egyptians and Turkish on this issue. The caves are located in a rural area on the outskirts of Hargeisa. They contain some of the earliest known cave paintings in the Horn of Africa. Laas Gaal’s rock art is estimated to date back to somewhere between 9,000–8,000 and 3,000 BCE.
Those prehistoric sites will reveal and determine the origins of Somaliland if properly handled from local authorities, scientists, historians. Many African countries are re-writing and protecting their national history, as we have seen the return of the obelisk Aksum, the archaeological discoveries of Laas Gaal and so on…The rock art makes up one of the oldest and most extensive records on Earth of human thought. It shows the very emergence of the human imagination. It is a priceless treasure. And it is irreplaceable.
Level of Importance and Distributions
Uniquely, this documented is content of Somaliland history while young generation dominated nation of 70%) not knowledgeable or award the existence of such national historic information.
It was collection efforts articulations that objectively prepared particularly for a part of contribution and distributions in coverage of the last London Conference on Somalia targeted to UK public and participants through Somaliland Foreign Office. Realistically, this piece of written history has made Somaliland history differentiated from Somalia during Conference gathered delegations.

In regarding, “level of in importance”, it’s an exerting as political instrumental tools to be used again for upcoming Istanbul Meeting and up to the best knowledge, this document is very rare in public media which can’t be found in anywhere else or published nor reported publicly before, as 99% of Somaliland young generation never read and heard such an old history written records. Let alone outside world especially targeting Turkish officials that currently visiting Somaliland.

Displaying 42 Comments
Have Your Say
  1. Kayse says:

    I didnt get the point of this article. First of all its full of grammar errors and secondly its not good to undermine, under estimate or insult the intelligence of your readers. Pay attention here:

    Recent Modern History

    Majority Somalilanders only virtualized the existence of economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.

    Your use of "majority Somalilanders", "only" and "VIRTUALIZED" is a big insult. Just because you found few documents that hardly mean anything does't make you all of sudden an expert historian. Poor author…I wish you only knew how much more than you your readers know. This is poor article and please learn English.

    No wonder you didnt post your name or email.

  2. Mo Jibril says:

    I Don't understand how you could be so negative to the author here. Regardless of what you think he has clearly attempted to give some insight to his readers and one might even go as far as saying this was extremly helpfulful. At no point does the author say his audiance are ''Stupid''. This is a wider problem in Somali society never giving credit to others and always feeling like we can do better than our peers.
    On a posative note this was a great read, keep them coming!

  3. Adam says:

    Agree with Mo Jibril. If you are not part of the solution, then you become the problem. Good article.

  4. Dumar says:


    Quote: Running away from your problems is a race you'll never win!!!

    Do remmerber me on London conference on Somalia ( All Your written comments are recorded and luckly you can't delete them today.) You know very very very well that I can easily display them here in front the our audiences.

    I think, it's misleading the respected audiences with corrupted spirit or hypochondriac personality by grow up means phobia anxiety refers to excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious treats to your Ogaden Zone.

    Or a way of gaining experience by means of direct and indirect observation from knowledgeable Somalilanders commenting in here or isn't belonging to us which symbolizes as enthusiast of Somaliwayen your dreams to joint them over there.

  5. saadmu says:


    Do have any objection on this on ? or tell me who can control to change if Somaliland wished to use these political instrumental clear History.

    In regarding, “level of in importance”, it’s an exerting as political instrumental tools to be used again for upcoming Istanbul Meeting and up to the best knowledge, this document is very rare in public media which can’t be found in anywhere else or published nor reported publicly before, as 99% of Somaliland young generation never read and heard such an old history written records. Let alone outside world especially targeting Turkish officials that currently visiting Somaliland.

  6. mustafa says:

    Turkey had link in somali history back ahmed gurey time,it’s all about coming conference in turkey june,to remind turkish officails That s/l had historic link with turkey”so The rest of somalia”
    coming conference in turkey all The somali groups will attend,turkey her position is clear to help somalis not to give recognitions etc,my advice to all somalis north/south/central is take This opportunity, becuase west it’s not gone help you for simple reason most of you are muslim 99%.

  7. Mahboub says:

    Im a somali, but i dont recognise what you lot chatting about, i thought there were only one somali, what's up with s/land and lugdheerand, ijiid land p/land , jubba land. You guys are disgraceful and trying divide somalia into 15 pieces shame on you. The Somali National Scholarship given to Silaanyo from 1958 to 1960, Silanyo enrolled in the London University and worked toward an advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE). He then studied at the University of Manchester, where he earned both a Bachelor's Degree (1960-63) and a Master's Degree (1963-65) in Economics. But Somalia as a whole never benefited from the scholarship it invested on him, only he came back to balkanise somalia even more

    • Jambazi says:

      At that time silanyo was studying there was no such thing called somalia which could pay for someone studies. And majority of educated Somalilander even other Africans who studied in Europe were sponsored by their former colonial masters government. And in some case, and in particular many of somalilander who were educated in Britain were offered scholarship by British government or their relatives paid for them. And FYI, there was no single person from former somali republic whose education abroad was paid by the former somali government. Most of those scholarship were bilateral assistance offer by the host country. Just like now days, Turkey, sudan and Egypt are offering scholarship to somali student, you cannot claim these student are sent to these countries and their education is paid by TFG. Claiming so will be ridiculous and beyond the basic truth.

  8. Ali says:

    I agree with Maxbuun

    If siyaad barre insulted north somalia, the south did not insulted north

  9. Abraham says:

    A bite size revision of our ''separate'' history, but the article is riddles with grammatical mistakes and badly needs editing.

  10. Abdi1234 says:

    @ Mahboub and friends,

    Its your ignorance that makes you write such stupid and arrogant comments. Silaanyo got his scholarship from Britain, at that time Somaliland was a British protectorate and that was before the Somaliland-Somalia union. Therefore, Somalia had nothing to do with Silaanyo's scholarship. Silaanyo worked laboriously for the Somali Republic for more than 2 decades, efforts were rewarded with ethenic cleansing and genocide and that is when he came to the conclusion that there was no point of in wasting more time with the corrupt and ignorant Somalia people, he choose to struggle for the recuperation of Somaliland's independence and he succeeded big time..

    Finally, I will argue the ignorant Somalia people (waloweyns) to learn history and learn from history and to put their burning home in order instead of spiting ugly venom on Somaliland and its leadership. What Somaliland does is its business and the business of the people from Somalia, at least we have law and order, democracy and we are free of warlords,pirates and terrorists – Wake-up and smell the coffee!

  11. Abdi1234 says:

    Typo: and not the business of the Somalia people.

  12. mohamed cheers says:

    Basically I don't see anything negativity or badly reported in the Article. It paints certain historical
    facts. I wish good progress outcome for both Somaliland and Somalia in the Istanbul Turkey
    forthcoming conference on June 2012. There's no doubt that Without rewarding Somaliland Quest
    for full UN membership state recognition, the Somalia quest will suffer into farther deeper anarchy…
    b'cus Somaliland holds the right key solutions to the Somalia crisis. Hopefully, the Turks would take
    this into their due consideration in collaboration with all key participants.

  13. Gobaad says:

    I really don't know why people always concentrate on few grammatical errors. It is the contents that matters, stupid!

    I believe that this is a gold-mine and prehistory information came to light and to shut up the walaweyn who are denying the existence of Somaliland, thinking the Somaliland came into existence only when we (Somalilanders) united with them. I believe that this is a prehistory discovery and a very good document for Somaliland. We should follow the links and dig more information on this research.

  14. Gobaad says:

    … Somaliland was called, that is.

  15. Ali says:

    I couldn't get into this link, can some one help me out, Please?

  16. mhassan says:

    To All Folks

    The actual and major documented details and facts about Somaliland – Turkish colonial historic relationship are attached the under BLUE LINKS. The article is just introduction of this attached document.

    To open / download the links easily, you to have get Google email account and then go through google chrome browser…. Not firefox or Explorer browsers.

    I hope this will serve the question about links, otherwise you can ask more clarification

  17. Berri says:

    In case, any one still having difficulties by opening the Link of this top important and histroic document from the article. As it written on google document program for security reasons, it works with Google Chrome Browser for gmail account.

    So, to open the Link is simple but needs to download Google Chrome which is a free web browser that takes just seconds to install on your PC Desktop.

    This Is a Simple Instructions:

    1) Go to Google search and type: "Download and install Google Chrome"
    2) Hit big button: " Download Google Chrome"
    3) Follow and See step-by-step instructions by installing on your PC
    4) then, you will find the installed a ( red, green and yellow color- icon/logo ) on your desktop and click that icon twice. When installed Google Chrome Browser opened: Type: on the new tab.
    5) come back to the article and click the Link on the article, use your gmail username and password if it asked only, otherwise, it will open automatically.
    6) If you don't have gmail accout, just create one ( it's simple) and then use it to open the document if asked for that.

    Note: if you have gmail account already , I think you can use it with yahoo and Firefox Browsers, just try it straight away without downloading Google Chrome and see if works

  18. osman5 says:

    Hi Everyone,
    Whenever one says good things about Somaliland the Somalis for some peculiar reasons get overly upset. this is not new to me, I've heard similar arguments like the ones above before by Somalis.

    So, on this topic I did read it thoroughly because the titles was very intriguing, as I finished reading it I went down to comments and noticed that all Somalis were a bit grumpy about it, based on their comments like someone was pissed on all over their cornflakes.
    It's a piece of history, no one can deny it, for crying out loud!

    I'd suggest for Somalis to smart up and look at other sources of history to verify your doubts, if there's any, perhaps try to be friendly so we can help you out for clues.

    I know, I know I'm being unrealistic to ask Somalis to smart up but I had to ask anyway.. I'm trying to the good cop here. there's always a good cop and tough cop to every scenario.

    Osman Qaal

  19. cumar says:




    • Gobaad says:

      cumar, we were Somalilanders while you were still under Italian Trustee. So, if anyone should change their name, you should because … annakaa idinka mudan, moron!

      • cumar says:

        Gobaad,no you were somali north or somali galbeed under british trustee,no one knows where This name somaliland come from,someone said a nomad person went one day british addmin office & said This’s somaliland,officer reply said well all north/south/central/west it’s somaliland it belongs to somalis & nomad man left.

  20. Berri says:

    I hope by now your link is working.

    My mine is working perfectly and found it, as *state-Of-Art* discovery Piece of Somaliland Chronology World History SHOCKS modern world with radically uniquely Pulling information and features that takes Somaliland history resarches to an ENRITELY New Level!

    It's also a great opportunity to save searching other sources any longer, especially for yunger generations….Plus, it's a sure-fire way to Sky-Rocket Somaliland recongination at COLOSSAL Speed that started already.

    No more blocked by African Dictatorship House OR deal with annoying Somalia's arguments …neither you are going to have problems getting search queries to go through. Plus, the documentation is presented in a 'Evidence environment' as stated in the Article will make it easy to organize and manage Somaliland state recognition in the next meetings process.

  21. Abdi1234 says:

    @ Berri,

    May I request you to publish this historic document on Somalilandpress for people to have an easy accessibility.

  22. Kayse says:

    You people argue about none-sense things and minor things. First of all this article is just childish and poor. Not only did the author undermined the readers intelligence, he or she failed to understand that Somaliland was never an Ottoman colony. The Ottomans built mosques and few townhouses in Berbera and Zeila…no where else and Somaliland is not just those two towns.

    Secondly building few blocks, does not make one a colony. The infrastructures they built at that time were not different to the ones they currently built or rehabilitated in Mogadishu, does that mean now Mogadishu is a Turkish colony?

    See how you people think?

    Somaliland was never a colony and the author of this poor article also failed to understand before the British and Ottoman, the two towns of Berbera and Zeila were part of the Islamic golden dynasty of Abbasid, which started the Islamic Golden Age in 750. They probably arrive in Berbera and Zeila in early 1300s…as some of them fled from the Mongol invasion which killed the Abbasid Caliph in Bagdad in 1258…

    The two towns also came under Egypt's Fatimid dynasty…and the Mamluks…and the Ottoman Empire never occupied Somaliland…one reason those rulers concentrated their efforts only on two towns is because Somalis were nomads and those two towns were the only towns with large populations…the rest were just wild nomads which interested no empires of the past.

    The only reason the British also went to Burao and Hargeisa is because the capital was changed few times from Berbera to Burao, then Berbera to Hargeisa.

    Hargeisa was a tiny village in 1920s.

  23. Berri says:

    What's your points of denying or acceptance in this topic my friend?

    You just boringly and blindly contradicting yourself by repeating the same content and information already written on this historic document.

    Example: 1) You said, in first pharaph: Somaliland was never an Ottoman colony
    2) At same time, you said: before the British and Ottoman, the two towns of Berbera and Zeila
    3) Other most stranger and embarrassing point is: In your another comment at beginning of this page, you objected the Article simply because of poor written and grammatical errors and now at same time your argurment is based on historic points. … You're stupid when you're sane buddy?

    Final point is you and others can't Re-write 3000 years Somaliland -Tukish history practical sense Or Re-wind the clock of 1000's years of past histories.

    I think , you shouldn't waste much of your time in here any more, just Go back to the schools of history and educate yourself.

    Dumar already gave you the fact and harshly critical quote: "Running away from your problems is a race you'll never win!!!" ….That's deadly embassring and face loosing image in front of the people but it's again a reward for impratical or deeply emotinal hatred Somaliland people.

  24. Berri says:


    If we want, I think all of us can do it,just by copying and pasting the whole text content (only) on the Somalilandpress comments space. But point is without getting graphic designs and images appearances.

    Gobaad did good job by posted the original long link to make easy for the public accessibility.

    But unfortunately, this link can be opened with google Chrome Browser or if you have google Gmail account only, so that to use this gmail account – username and password with other Browsers such MSN, Firefox and Safari,if we wanted to see graphics and images. To download Google Chrome is easy and see my previous simple instructional comment about downloading Google Chrome if make sense to you.

    Sorry for some teche words may involved. Anyway, we can do either way to copy and paste the text only or create gmail account..

  25. Berri says:

    Additionally, Somalilandpress Administer can easily create for us too, by using simple code called HMTL
    but since they provided us the link then, definitely no need that kind of coding.

  26. Gobaad says:

    Berri, I know our brother, Kayse is always self-righteous and jack of all trades. But the point is not the gramatical errors he pointed out or whether the Ottoman Empire colonized Somaliland. It is though that a very important and historical document about Somaliland's existence prehistory has come to light. And just because we, Somalis are oral society we don't have a chronolgical history records and to come upon this accidentally and unexpectedly is a glod-mine and a very important piece and it will definitely shut up lots of people who are denying the existence of Somaliland and will let them choke in their venom.

  27. Berri says:


    Yours is rational message to the points.

    One more note: I think he's old SLPress member and by now, he recognies our names. So, I wonder why he tried to make such failing trials with us? …Sure, himself and others will be killed by constriction a python poisonous, or by swallowing their prey whole.

    Also, brother Kayse should stick in one name firstly, either Kayse or Abdi2, that's simple misleading action to the audience, before he denied or accepted the complicated issues such high profile researched of Somaliland' s long and clear history!

  28. mohamed ali says:


  29. xariir id@@r says:


  30. naasir abdi says:


  31. guuled says:


  32. Dr ducaale says:

    if somaliland press is a reflection of somaliland back home then we got a Ethiopian problem, it seems this site is full of Ethiopians masquerading as somalilanders with their somali nicknames
    I am all for freedom of speech but foreign nations propaganda should not be given platform in somaliland sites

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